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Preimmunization: Applications and Perspectivesin Virus Disease control 361 Gerd W. Looking at the load of the future food requirement, the global increased production of FV during last few years has absorbed the additional food requirement and accordingly the eating habits are also changing and shifting to- wards more consumption of these commodities worldwide. Predicting apple blossom infections by Erwinia amylovora using the MARYBLYT model. The only solution was to search for and find mild strains of CTV which might protect against the severe stem pitting strains. With an additional 1.5 billion mouth to feed by 2020, farmers worldwide have to produce 39 % more. Since the scions and even rootstocks may be severely pitted, changing to a new rootstocks has little or no effect, and this course of action could not be used to resolve this serious problem. The diseases of economic importance caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses and virus like organisms. National Research Centre for Citrus, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, PO Box 464, Amravati Road, NAGPUR 440 010, Maharashtra, INDIA Fax:91-712-2500813 Phone:91-712-2500249; 2500518 E-mail [email protected] Section two covers major diseases caused by fungi, including the ever important apple scab and powdery mildew. It is subject to severe stem pitting resulting in a reduction of fruit size. Phytoplasma and nematodes of each crop are covered, describing their history, distribution, losses incurred, symptoms, latest diagnostic tools, epidemiology and integrated applied management approaches including cultural, chemical, genetic resources, use of bio-control agents being adopted world-wide. The next section covers diseases of the roots and crown with particular emphasis on Phytophthora root, crown, and collar rot. In addition, the distribution of CTV in grapefruit is not uniform.

In certain parts of the world, FV are the major dietary staple. A Predictive Program for Forecasting Fire Blight Diseases in Apples and Pears. Some of the rootstocks found tolerant to CTV are the trifoliate orange and its hybrids i.e. Also the rough lemon, Volkamer lemon, Rangpur lime and Cleopatra mandarin are tolerant to CTV.

Epidemiology of Powdery Mildew, Downy Mildew and Anthracnose Diseases of Grapevine 621 T. A recent survey by the Economist revealed that the world population has in- creased by 90 % in the past 40 years while food production has increased only by 25 % per head. Predicting canker, shoot, and trauma blight phases of fire blight epidemics using the MARYBLYT model. These strains induce severe stem pitting in trunks and branches of lime, grapefruit and sweet orange trees resulting in the production of small fruit and tree decline. Susceptibility of several citrus relatives to Satsuma dwarf virus.

Diseases and Disorders of Mango and their Management 511 Om Prakash 14. The increased income from per unit area of FV is far ahead and can not be compared with that of cereal crops. However, there are strains of CTV which can attack the scion directly regard- less of the rootstock.

Management of perennial fruit crops requires further close monitoring especially for the management of diseases that can affect production significantly and subsequently the post-harvest life of these highly perishable commodities. They also theorized that the distribution of the mild protec- tive isolate is important and it should have the ability to quickly invade all new flushes.

Diagnosis and Management of Pre and Post-harvest Diseases of Citrus fruit 339 S. However, the cultivation of these crops for optimum yield and quality produce, is highly technical and needs improved technological support. Effects of dolomitic lime on production of asci and pseudothecia of Venturia inaequalis and V. Normally, the rule of the thumb is, the more severe the CTV isolates, the higher the concentration of the isolate. India leads the world in production of banana, mango, sapota and acidlime and among vegetables it is the largest producer of pea and cauliflower and second largest in onion, brinjal (egg plant) and cabbage. 2) seed- ling yellows tristeza - strains of tristeza which induce a seedling yellows reaction in certain seedlings such as lemon, grapefruit or sour orange and 3) stem pitting tristeza which induces stem pitting in the scion or rootstock of lime, grapefruit or sweet orange.